THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT OF GOLFO DULCE

Located along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica between 8°22' N and 8°45' N, Golfo Dulce is considered one of only four tropical fiords in the world (Toft & Larsen 2009). The curved embayment, situated between the Osa Peninsula and the mainland, is approximately 50 km in length and 10–15 km wide. It receives fresh water discharge from four main rivers: Rincon, Esquinas, Tigre and Coto Colorado (Svendsen et al. 2006). The inner basin, of tectonic origin and occasionally anoxic (Hebbeln & Cortés 2001), reaches 215 m in depth and is contained by a ~60 m sill, which prevents free exchange with the Pacific water masses (Svendsen et al. 2006). Sediments inside the Gulf already show anthropogenic contamination (Spongberg 2004).



Peer-reviewed

Acuña-González, J., J.A. Vargas-Zamora, E. Gómez-Ramírez, y J. García-Céspedes. 2004. Hidrocarburos de petróleo, disueltos y dispersos, en cuatro ambientes costeros de Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 52 (Supl. 2):43-50. [enlace]

Acuña-González, J., J.A. Vargas-Zamora, and R. Córdoba-Muñoz. 2006. A snapshot view of some vertical distributions of water parameters at a deep (200 m) station in the fjord-like Golfo Dulce, embayment, Costa Rica. 54 (Suppl. 1):193-200. [link]

Buchs, D.M., P.O. Baumgartner, C. Baumgartner-Mora, A.N. Bandini, S.J. Jackett, M.O. Diserens, and J. Stucki 2009. Late Cretaceous to Miocene seamount accretion and mélange formation in the Osa and Burica Peninsulas (Southern Costa Rica): episodic growth of a convergent margin. Geological Scoiety, London, Special Publications, 328: 411–456. [link]

Dalsgaard T., D.E. Canfield, J. Petersen, B. Thamdrup, and J. Acuña-González. 2003. N2 production by the anammox reaction in the anoxic water column of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Nature 422:606-608. [link]

Ferdelman TG, B. Thamdrup, D.E. Canfield, R.N. Glud, J. Kuever, R. Lillebæk, N.B. Ramsing, and C Wawer. 2006. Biogeochemical controls on the oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur distributions in the water column of Golfo Dulce: an anoxic basin on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica revisited. Revista de Biología Tropical 54 (Suppl. 1):171-191. [link]

Fournier, M.L., L.E. Castillo, F. Ramírez, G. Moraga, C. Ruepert. 2019. Evaluación preliminar del área agrícola y su influencia sobre la calidad del agua en el Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Revista de Ciencias Ambientales (Trop J Environ Sci) 53(1): 92-112. [link]

Hebbeln, D., D. Beese, and J. Cortés. 1996. Morphology and sediment structures in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 44 (Suppl. 3):1-10. [link]

Hebbeln, D., and J. Cortés. 2001. Sedimentation in a tropical fiord: Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Geo-Marine Letters 20:142–148. [link]

Lei, Z. 2002. Marine coastal dynamics and primary production response in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica: A multi-sensor satellite approach. Thesis, Master of Science, Geoinformation to Coastal Zone Studies, International Institute for Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation, Enschede, The Netherlands. [link]

Malzer O., and M. Fiebig. 2008. Outline of the geology of the Golfo Dulce region (Costa Rica) and its surroundings in Central America. In Natural and Cultural History of the Golfo Dulce Region, Costa Rica (Eds. A.Weissenhofer, W. Huber, V. Mayer, S. Pamperl, A. Weber, and G. Aubrecht). Stapfia Series, Biologiezentrum, Austria. 768 pp. [link]

Morales-Ramírez, Á., J. Acuña-González, O. Lizano, E. Alfaro, and E. Gómez. 2015. Rasgos oceanográficos en el Golfo Dulce, Pacífico de Costa Rica: una revisión para la toma de decisiones en conservación marina. Revista de Biología Tropical 63(Supl.1):131-160. [link]

Quesada-Alpízar, M.A. and A. Morales-Ramírez. 2004. Comportamiento de las masas de agua en el Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica durante El Niño (1997 - 1998). Revista de Biología Tropical 52: 95–103. [link]

Richards, F.A., J.J. Anderson, and J.D. Cline. 1971. Chemical and physical observations in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Limnology and Oceanography 16:43-50. [link]

Rincón-Alejos, F., and D. Ballestero-Sakson. 2015. Hidrografía y plumas estuarinas en Golfo Dulce, Pacífico sur de Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 63(Supl.1):161-181. [link]

Silva, A.M., and J. Acuña-Gonzáles. 2006. Caracterización físico-química de dos estuarios en la bahía de Golfito, Golfo Dulce, Pacífico de Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 54:241-256. [link]

Spongberg, A. 2004. PCB contamination in marine sediments from Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 52:23–32. [link]

Spongberg, A.L., and P. Davis. 1998. Organochlorinated pesticide contaminants in Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 46(Suppl. 6):111-124. [link]

Svendsen, H., R. Rosland, S. Myking, J.A. Vargas, O.G. Lizano, and E.J. Alfaro. 2006. A physical-oceanographic study of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 54:147–170. [link]

Thamdrup, B., D.E. Canfield, T.G. Ferdelman, R.N. Glud, and J.K. Gundersen. 1996. A biogeochemical survey of the anoxic basin Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Reconocimiento biogeoquímico de la cuenca anóxica del Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 44:19–33. [link]

Umana V, G. 1998. Characterization of some Golfo Dulce drainage basin rivers (Costa Rica). Revista de Biología Tropical 46(Supl.6):125·135. [link]

Wolff M., H.J. Hartman, and V. Koch. 1996. A pilot trophic model for Golfo Dulce, a tropical fjord-like embayment, Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 44:215–231. [link]



Scientific Reports & Posters

Germain, N. 2004. Importancia de la calidad de agua del río Conte y recomendaciones para un plan de acción de gestión sostenible, Playa Blanca, Golfo Dulce, CR. Tesis de Maestría, Univ. Costa Rica, San Pedro. 81 pp. [link]

Molina-Bustamante, C., and L. Crowder. 2014. Dimensión Humana de los Ecosistemas Marinos de la Región de Osa y Golfito. Stanford Woods Institute for the Environment, Iniciativa Osa y Golfito (INOGO). [link]

Quesada, M.A., and J. Cortés. 2006. Golfo Dulce. In V. Nielsen Munoz and M.A. Quesada Alpizar (eds.) Ambientes Marino Costeros de Costa Rica, pp. 168-176. Informe técnico de la comisión interdisciplinaria marino costera de la zona económica exclusiva de Costa Rica.[link]



Other Links

Dalsgaard, T., D.E. Canfield, J. Petersen, B. Thamdrup, and J. Acuña-González. 2003. N2 production by the anammox reaction in the anoxic water column of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica. Nature 422: 606-608. N2 production by the anammox reaction in the anoxic water column of Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica | Nature

Toft, R., T. Larsen. 2009. Osa: Where the Rainforest Meets the Sea. Zona Tropical Publications, Costa Rica, 222 pp. [link]